Myopia

Myopia

What is it?

What exactly is myopia?

Short-sightedness (myopia) is a very common refractive error in which distant vision (distant vision) is very difficult. In myopia, light rays from the external environment, and thus the images of the various objects are not focused in back of our eye, i.e. the cornea, as in normal emmetropic eyes but in front of it, so we can not see objects that are far away, clearly.

myopia1   myopia2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKZ0KxlSo&w=600&h=420

Causes

What causes myopia?

Main causes:

  • increased refractive power of the eye (refractive myopia)
  • increased sagittal axis of the eye (axial myopia)
  • Heredity (determination of grades and progression of refractive error)
  • reading and computer use (contributing to the deterioration of abnormality)
  • hormonal changes (eg during pregnancy, deterioration of the condition is observed)
  • environmental factors
  • congenital glaucoma
  • spherophakia
  • optical neuropathy

myopia3   myopia4

Myopia usually occurs usually in the last grades of elementary school and stabilizes sometime in adolescence with low growth trends until 21 years of age.

Treatment

Myopia can be treated with:

  • vision glasses
  • contact lenses
  • refractive surgery (surgery with excimer laser)
  • surgery for implantation of phakic intraocular lens (phakic intraocular lens) and replacing the crystalline, natural lens of the eye, most often in cases of very high myopia (degenerative myopia)
myopia5   myopia6

Degenerative myopia

What is degenerative myopia?

In degenerative myopia, besides the classical blurred perception of distant objects, which is the main characteristic / symptom of myopia as a refractive error, degenerative lesions of the eye are present. Specifically, these lesions usually occur in myopia of more than 6.00 diopters, but sometimes they are not related to the myopic points.

myopia7   myopia8

People with degenerative lesions are more likely to suffer retinal detachment. Retinal detachment occurs in 5% – 8% of people with high myopia (usually increases with galloping rhythms). The examination of the fundus is useful and it is performed, in such cases, for finding possible degenerative lesions.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CYpiDqzAoE&w=600&h=420

Myopia and pregnancy

Myopia and pregnancy

Pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important periods in the life of every woman. Within these 9 months, usually a plurality of changes in the human body and the body is present. This results in affecteing individual systems of the body, including the vision. For this very reason it is necessary to systematically monitor it. In pregnancy, a common effect of hormonal changes is myopia or the worsening of pre-existing myopia. Change in focus and adaptation are also possible phenomena. The above symptoms are most often temporary, and the condition of vision is restored after childbirth. So during a pregnancy, the process of an eye test is defined as an important preventive action, despite the fact that generally speaking, most expectant mothers avoid it.

myopia9   myopia10

It should be noted finally that the women who consider to perform refractive surgery with excimer laser to correct refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, should avoid the process during pregnancy (and while breastfeeding). The main reason is the changes in the cornea due to hormonal changes that make the refractive outcome unpredictable. Following breastfeeding, since the cornea returns to its normal state (and the tear layer is restored), then one such surgery can be performed after the necessary preoperative – refractive control.