Other usual conditions



What is blepharitis?

Blepharitis (blepharitis) is a common and persistent inflammation of the eyelids. The bacteria present in the skin surface around the eyes, are possible, in some individuals, to develop on the skin at the base of the eyelashes. This results in eye irritation. This situation often occurs in people who have a tendency for oily skin, dandruff or dry eyes. Blepharitis can begin in early childhood with the emergence of granulation on the eyelids and continue the rest of their life as a chronic condition.


  • burning
  • itching
  • sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • foreign body sensation (pronounced upon waking)
  • yellow crusts on the edges of the eyelids

blepharitis1   blepharitis2


Blepharitis is an ocular condition that can not be cured, but can be controlled with a few simple daily measures:

  • gently washing the lashes
  • use of a wet towel with warm water or chamomile (to liquefy fatty secretions from the sebaceous glands of the eyelids), at least two times a day
  • use of an antibiotic ointment (after prescription)
  • artificial tears to reduce dry eye
  • use of steroids (to reduce inflammation)
  • use of ther antibiotics (for reducing bacteria in the eyelids)
  • grape consumption: Grape skins are rich in an antioxidant called resveratrol which has been found to be effective in neutralizing nitrite substances which contribute to inflammation
  • tearing


What exactly is tearing?

In some people, tears stagnate in the eye either by over-production or because of their poor drainage. Excess tear results in showing the eye as wet, the tear concentrating along the lower lid edge and finally, to fall on the cheek. This situation is the lacrimation (tearing). The tearing can be very annoying as it blurs the vision, and patients need to wipe their eyes, in some cases, almost constantly.

Main causes of increased production of tears:

  • ocular allergies
  • glaucoma
  • infections
  • dry eyes
  • physical stimuli (wind, smoke)
  • ciliary tumors
  • orbital trauma
  • congenital defects of eyelid

dakriroia1   dakriroia2


There is a way to deal with the obstructed tear duct. An innovative method is endoscopic ascorinostomy. The purpose of this operation is, by the time the nasolacrimal ducts are obstructed, to create a new drainage of tears between the lacrimal sac and the inside of the nose, via a bypass (bypass) higher than the level of occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct. The technique has a very high success rate. Considerable advantages: In the case where all causes coexist (eye inflammation with loose lids and obstructed lacrimal duct), a complex response is needed by the skilled surgeon to correct the causes in an operation during which all operations will be performed. Patients with tearing need to have a complete assessment in order to identify the exact cause and to determine the precise treatment plan.

Double vision

What exactly is the vision diplopia?

Double vision or diplopia (double vision) is a particularly troublesome symptom because while the sufferer fixes their gaze on a certain subject, they see two images. Sometimes, due to some irritation or mild eye injury, the patient reports that they temporarily see blurred or double. The actual double vision but is a consequence of paralysis or simple paresis (weakness) of the oculomotor muscle.

diplopia1   diplopia2

What causes diplopia?

The causes of diplopia are quite a few and the main ones are:

  • simple viral infection
  • thyroid eye disease
  • eye injury
  • neural infection
  • trauma of the eye muscles
  • brain tumors
  • brain aneurysm
  • diabetes
  • arteriosclerosis
  • temporal arteritis
  • myasthenia
  • traumatic Brain Injury
  • hypertension
  • vascular incident


Such a situation needs to be confirmed by neuroimaging methods. In most cases corrected to wink. If not corrected, it may need surgery or administration of glasses with prisms, but they are not always tolerated by the patient. For diplopia, you should consult an ophthalmologist. If there is a suspicion of a neurological disease, you should see a neurologist.

Colour blindness

What exactly is colour blindness?

Colour blindness or daltonism is characterized as the situation in which the person can not fully perceive colours. Usually, there is an inability to distinguish red (protanopia), green (defteranopia) or cyan (tritanopia). Colour blindness mainly regards men (8% of the male population) and less women (0.5% of the female population). It can be inherited. The paradox is that most patients are unaware of their problem. They perceive, many times, the different colours as differences of brightness.

dyschromatopsia1   dyschromatopsia2

Some diseases that occur during our lives can make us get colour blindness. Such diseases are: Tumors of the optic nerve, macular disease, optic neuritis, injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain. It is worth mentioning that the cones, which are concentrated mainly in the area of the macula, are the cells responsible for colour vision.


What exactly is conjunctivitis?

By conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) we mean inflammation of the conjunctiva which is characterized by vasodilation, varied cellular infiltration and swelling. Conjunctivitises, depending on the duration of inflammation, are divided into acute and chronic. A conjunctivitis is considered as chronic when the inflammation persists for more than three weeks. Both acute and chronic conjunctivitises are divided into infectious and non-infectious. One of the criteria for a conjunctivitis to be considered infectious or non-infectious is the type of secretions and presentation of inflammation. When there are abundant secretions of greenish hue, there is a high possibility that the conjunctivitis is contagious. Conversely, when the secretions are few and of white colour, then, more likely, conjunctivitis is not contagious.

conjunctivitis1   conjunctivitis2

Various reasons can cause conjunctivitis:

The most common are: infections, allergies and irritation from the atmosphere. Because the conjunctiva is a simple tissue, it reacts to all these irritations always in the same way: by reddening. Furthermore, bacterial infections by bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus can cause redness in the eye, accompanied by secretion of a sufficient quantity of pus (eye gum). If the amount of pus is too large, there is probably an acute infection. In this case it would be good to visit an ophthalmologist soon. Moreover, some bacterial infections are more chronic and can cause scabs, but in a mild form, on the eyelashes, in the morning. Other causes of conjunctivitis are viral infections. Many viruses cause redness in the eye, a sore throat and a runny nose. Others can only infect the eye. Viral conjunctivitis usually produces a watery discharge and can last from one to two weeks.

Forms of conjunctivitis:

  • Seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis known as hay, is 50%, and allergic conjunctivitis caused by airborne allergens. Patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis usually complain about itching, redness, tearing and burning. The involvement of the eyes may be the sole manifestation of the disease, but these patients usually have symptoms from the nose and the throat as well. These symptoms occur when allergens responsible for the manifestation of allergy are abundant in the environment. Thus, patients sensitive to pollen of trees have these symptoms during the spring. It is also important to note that patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis have recurrent episodes, whose weight varies not only from year to year, but from day to day as well
  • Spring Allergic conjunctivitis: allergic vernal kerato-conjunctivitis is usually a recurrent, bilateral disease which affects, more frequently, males aged from 3 to 25 years and more common under 10 years. It is more common in dry and hot climates. Although the disease can be active throughout the course of time, however it is more pronounced in the warmer months, from April to August. Patients with vernal allergic conjunctivitis are positive both in their individual history of seasonal allergies, atopic dermatitis and asthma and family history for varying expressions of allergies. After 2-8 years of active disease, the vast majority of patients with vernal allergic keratoconjunctivitis shows spontaneous recovery. The vernal allergic conjunctivitis causes severe itching, foreign body sensation, white thick filamentous secretions, photophobia, burning and redness

conjunctivitis3   conjunctivitis4


The treatment of ocular allergies before you get to the doctor are: Initially avoid rubbing the eyes with his hands. Use good quality sunglasses to protect the ocular surface from allergens and treating photophobia. Then place cold compresses over the closed eyelids, making sure, always, to have washed your hands before and prefer artificial tears without preservatives to plain tap water to remove allergens from the ocular surface. Remove contact lenses promptly, which function as “sponges”, retaining the allergens.


What is keratitis;

Keratitis (keratitis) is an inflammation and ulceration of the cornea. It is usually caused by external factors and infectious microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites (exogenous keratitis) or systemic diseases (endogenous keratitis). However, there is a possibility for it to be caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal trauma and vitamin deficiency (vitamin A). The main symptoms of the disease are eye pain, tearing, light sensitivity, corneal edema and reduced visual acuity.

keratitis1   keratitis2

Causes, diagnosis and treatment:

One eye with keratitis is examined for loss of transparency of the cornea and inflammation. The test is performed using a slit lamp for better estimation of the eye. A patient with keratitis should in no way be rubbing the eye, since it is likely to present additional complications. Medication is prescribed by an ophthalmologist which must be respected carefully, upon patient education. Usually the treatment includes warm compresses to relieve pain, low light or sunglasses in the case of photophobia and a balanced diet. Excessive sun exposure is likely to cause flare. Finally, it should be pointed out that several forms of keratitis are contagious, so it is necessary for the examiners to take proper precautions. That is why both the patient and the attendants are properly informed of the response measures.

Main forms of keratitis:

The best known extrinsic keratitis is catarrhal (after viral conjunctivitis), herpetic keratitis (from herpes simplex virus) and corneal ulcers (after corneal injury). The most typical form of endogenous keratitis is parenchymatous keratitis, which is observed in children and adolescents.


What exactly is the stye and how is it created?

The stye is a bacterial infection of the root of the lashes or of the neighbouring microglands of the eyelid. A small purulent abscess is created, usually painful. Stye can be either internal or external. The internal stye, which is an acute purulent inflammation of the follicles of the eyelashes (purulent follicolitis) involving the adjacent sebaceous and sweat glands. The external stye is an acute purulent inflammation of the Meibomius glands. Usually the excretory duct is obstructed and contaminated with staphylococcus.

Causes and factors that trigger it:

  • follicolitis of the eyelashes (internal)
  • inflamed glands of the eyelashes (external).
  • microbial cause (e.g. staphylococcus)

krithi1   krithi2


Treatment is with hot compresses (warm compresses) and eradicating the lash causing the problem. Rarely, antibiotics may be needed systemically or locally with very good results in a short time. In more rare cases, drilling is required.


Good hygiene of the eyelids, and generally of the eyes and the hands when they come to contact with the eyes, help prevent the inflammation of the area (blepharitis and other inflammations of the eye).

Dry eyes

What is a dry eye and what the main causes?

Some people do not produce enough tears for their eyes to be kept at a “convenient” situation. Tear production normally decreases as we age. Although a dry eye may occur in both men and women of all ages, women are most affected, particularly after menopause. Dry eye can also be associated with arthritis and accompanied by a dry mouth. People with dry eyes, dry mouth and arthritis are considered to suffer from Sjogren’s syndrome. A large variety of common pharmaceutical preparations can also cause xerophthalmia reducing tear secretion. People with a dry eye are often more susceptible to the toxic side effects of drugs for the eyes, including artificial tears.

dryeyes1   dryeyes2


  • stinging or burning eyes
  • itching
  • fibrous mucus in or around the eyes (or eye gum)
  • severe eye irritation from smoke or wind
  • lacrimation
  • difficulty in fitting contact lenses

The tearing of a dry eye sounds somewhat paradoxical, but if the tears do not keep the eye in a humid enough environment, this is irritated. Then the lacrimal gland produces a large amount of tears that exceeds the limit of the eye’s “sewage” system and eventually overflowing the eye.


A dry eye is a condition that can never be cured but can be controlled. The most practical and effective method is the hot compresses, which should be in a clean small face towel. Other methods of dry eye therapy is the administration of antibiotics and good quality tears.


What exactly is the tallow and when is it displayed?

The tallow is a lesion which normally consists of yellowish fat and protein deposits in the bulbar conjunctiva (white of the eye). It occurs mainly in older ages, after chronic irritation by the air and the dust or prolonged exposure to the sun.

stye1   stye2

Treatment and management:

The tallow generally does not cause problems and does not need treatment, unless, there is an inflammation. Usually, the recommended periodic use of eye drops or artificial tears is recommended. If the tallow proves too troublesome, it can be removed surgically, although this happens very rarely. It is not a tumour, but an alteration of the normal tissue. It does not invade the cornea and the optical axis (in contrast to the pterygium) and thus does not threaten the vision.